Environment

Synthetic knowledge and the internet of things

In principle, there is broad consensus that knowledge should be the basis of environmental sustainability policies. Knowledge about the environment is often generated by corporations, in addition to governments, as part of their industrial activities (Mukerji 1989).

The Arctic is an important crossroads of industrial development and environmental preservation (Figure 1), as calculations suggest that it contains one-fourth of the […]

What are green jobs and where are they?

Addressing grand environmental challenges (e.g. climate change) entails adapting the skill base and, thus, the composition of the workforce. Recent interventions both in the form of environmental regulation or of subsidies – i.e. the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 and its green component, which accounts approximately for 15 per cent of the overall fiscal stimulus – […]

October 17th, 2018|Economics, Environment|0 Comments|
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    Fracking in the UK: how could a technologically advanced society choose to destroy itself?

Fracking in the UK: how could a technologically advanced society choose to destroy itself?

Prime Minister Theresa May recently doubled down on the Conservative Party’s commitment to the development of hydraulic fracturing of shale gas (‘fracking’) in the UK. In the House of Commons, the Prime Minister proposed £1 billion of additional resources be directed to local communities and councils to support their acceptance of this new source of fossil fuel extraction. Fracking, […]

October 16th, 2018|Environment|1 Comment|
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    China is investing in developing countries – what is it really up to?

China is investing in developing countries – what is it really up to?

What types of energy does China finance with its development aid?

China has been steadily intensifying its economic and strategic relations with developing countries in recent years. Through deepening trade ties, large-scale infrastructure financing and its ambitious vision to create ‘seamless connectivity’ through three main infrastructure sectors (energy, transport and information and communications technology) across continents through its Belt and […]

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    Strategic silence: Why are some companies not publicising their environmental certifications?

Strategic silence: Why are some companies not publicising their environmental certifications?

IKEA uses a lot of lumber. You may have become acquainted with that lumber when you sweated over assembling a Billy bookcase correctly. Is IKEA callously felling old-growth forests to prop up our old college textbooks? No, for years it has sourced its lumber from forests certified by the Forest Stewardship Council. But you won’t see that fact trumpeted […]

September 24th, 2018|Environment, Featured|1 Comment|
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    Climate change poses risks to the financial system. How can central banks deal with them?

Climate change poses risks to the financial system. How can central banks deal with them?

Climate change poses risks to the financial system. Yet our understanding of these risks is still limited. As we explain in a recent paper, central banks and financial regulators could contribute to the development of methodologies and modelling tools for assessing climate-related financial risks. If it becomes clear that these risks are substantial, central banks should consider taking them […]

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    A French dilemma: environmental leadership vs environment-damaging economic growth

A French dilemma: environmental leadership vs environment-damaging economic growth

In pursuit of an America First policy, the US withdrew from the Paris Agreement (COP21), with grave economic and ecological consequences and representing a serious backlash for US global leadership in tackling the environmental challenges and issues surrounding climate change. There was no obvious public appetite for the US withdrawal from the Paris Agreement, yet on the positive side, the European […]

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    Melting ice caps will open the northern sea to commercial traffic and change world trade patterns

Melting ice caps will open the northern sea to commercial traffic and change world trade patterns

Arctic ice cover has been shrinking as a result of global warming. Besides the important and critical environmental and economic effects of melting ice caps, a side effect is to open the northern sea route for high volume commercial traffic. This shipping route will connect East Asia – Japan, South Korea, Taiwan and China – with North-western Europe through […]

Collectivists, individualists and indifferents

Consumers increasingly prefer to purchase sustainable and healthy products. This trend is important if we are to meet the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals.

However, most evidence about consumer preferences is based on self-reported purchases rather than consumers’ actual purchases. Moreover, when asked, consumers tend to overstate their sustainability and health-conscious purchases.

The problem with this situation is that companies wishing […]

July 13th, 2018|Environment|0 Comments|
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    The level of trust in a country affects environmental compliance by firms

The level of trust in a country affects environmental compliance by firms

What affects how compliant businesses are with environmental regulations? Traditional enforcement measures such as fines and inspections by authorities can be an effective deterrent for rule-breaking. Recent research has also shown that information-based enforcement tools can be effective at increasing compliance, for instance a “watch list” in the Clean Air Act in the United States that keeps track of […]

July 11th, 2018|Environment|0 Comments|

When CEO hubris leads to environmental innovation

Rupert Murdoch, Marissa Mayer, Jean Marie Messier. What do they have in common? All of them are famous CEOs of successful or unsuccessful business empires and all, at some point, were accused for their hubristic personalities. The ‘hubris syndrome’ is a psychological state affecting leaders in positions of authority and power. It is characterised by an exaggerated self-belief, sense […]

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    How businesses in sub-Saharan Africa are adapting to climate change

How businesses in sub-Saharan Africa are adapting to climate change

Climate change poses increasing risks to economic growth and development across the world and particularly in developing countries. A critical issue is the extent to which private actors, and especially businesses, are able to adapt to climate risks. In Africa, the private sector generates two-thirds of the continent’s investment, 75 per cent of its economic output and 90 per […]

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    Climate change: extreme heat will decrease rural employment and increase migration in Mexico

Climate change: extreme heat will decrease rural employment and increase migration in Mexico

Climate change is predicted to bring increased incidence of extreme weather events, rising temperatures, melting ice caps, and changing precipitation patterns. A growing body of literature suggests that the economic costs of climate change may be substantial and far-reaching, impacting agriculture, mortality, labour productivity, economic growth, civil conflict, and migration. Until recently, however, the literature has remained relatively silent […]

Which eco-labels deliver what they promise?

With more than 450 eco-labels worldwide, consumers have greater access to information about which products offer superior environmental attributes. However, consumers often do not know the meaning behind a particular eco-label. For example, the European Union (EU) Flower is Europe’s most widely recognised eco-label. Yet 40 per cent of United Kingdom residents state that they do not know its meaning. Fewer consumers understand the “rules,” […]

May 11th, 2018|Environment|0 Comments|
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    Intellectual property rights and the transfer of low-carbon technologies to other countries

Intellectual property rights and the transfer of low-carbon technologies to other countries

Wide access to clean technologies is crucial to meet the Paris Agreement goal of limiting the increase in global temperatures to well below 2 degrees Celsius. This requires considerable technology transfers from North to South as 90 per cent of the increase in global carbon emissions until 2050 is expected to occur in the developing world, while the vast […]

UK must create a cap-and-trade pollution market

PMQs on Wednesday opened with an attack on the Government’s air pollution strategy from the backbenches. It was by no means the first time in recent years the strategy has been challenged. It wasn’t even the first time that day. That morning, Government had – for the third time – lost a legal battle over its plan.

All this controversy […]

February 23rd, 2018|Dan Lewis, Environment|0 Comments|

Delinking economic growth and CO2 emission is possible

Six of the top 10 emitters of greenhouse gas are developing countries, according to a recent analysis of the World Resources Institute (see Figure 1). At present, developing countries already account for more than half of total annual emissions, and the share will only rise as developing countries grow. Clearly, achieving the global climate targets of the Paris Agreement […]

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    We can’t rely on corporations to save us from climate change

We can’t rely on corporations to save us from climate change

Climate change is now the ever-present reality of human experience. Late last year we witnessed a procession of huge hurricanes batter the US and Caribbean, the largest wildfires on record burn through California, and in Australia, despite the death of up to half of the Great Barrier Reef in back-to-back coral bleaching events, political support for new mega-coal mines […]

Socially responsible investment is growing at a fast clip

The Paris Agreement on climate change took place in December 2015 with signatories agreeing to keep the rise in global temperatures below 2 degrees Celsius (above pre-industrial levels). The most recent follow-up meeting took place in Bonn, Germany in November. Politicians, NGOs and regulators have taken the lead, but they need the financial services industry to put its money […]

December 19th, 2017|Environment, Tim Fright|0 Comments|

Simulating shared mobility in Helsinki

New types of ride-sharing services offered by companies like Uber, Lyft and Cabify have been gaining ground in recent years, especially in urban areas. The conflation of technology, both within and outside of the transport sector, with evolving societal trends around the production and consumption of services has been faster than anticipated by many authorities and has outpaced the […]