Large economic and political turbulence occurs in the aftermath of financial crises. What starts as panic in a single financial market or institution usually propagates rapidly to other agents of the economy and might necessitate an urgent and decisive reaction from policymakers. However, it is difficult to predict, a priori, whether the reaction of policymakers to the crisis would […]
Back in 2015, when the Paris Agreement was signed, just a handful of regulators were engaged with climate change risk, notably the Bank of England and the People’s Bank of China.
But now momentum is growing. March 2019 alone saw three important steps forward. First, the Bank of England’s Mark Carney, one of the first central bankers to take action […]
Starting at the second half of the 20th century, the economic and political integration of Europe is the largest and longest integration project in human history. It is still a work in process. The integration at this scale undoubtedly comes with profound difficulties and it would be fair to be sympathetic with architects and builders of this project. The difficulties […]
Cryptocurrencies and their potential impact on central banking have sparked a policy debate on addressing their potential risks to the banking and monetary systems. By highlighting the functional similarities between bitcoin and central bank money (CeBM) and investigating the challenges that the potential wider adoption of cryptocurrencies can pose to central banks, my working paper discusses issuing central bank […]
In preparation for Brexit, banks and other financial firms have been setting up offices in various EU cities and moving staff to them. In the case of ‘no deal’, we can expect more staff and functions to be moved. As a matter of prudence, the banks have anyway been required by their supervisors to prepare for a ‘no deal’ […]
As we approach the date for leaving the EU, the government has been publishing a series of statutory instruments (U.K. secondary legislation), on-shoring and amending EU regulations ahead of Brexit. This is being done under the European Union (Withdrawal) Act 2018. During the past weeks risks in this sector linked to a no deal scenario have increased significantly. However, despite […]
In the second quarter of 2018 global debt reached a new peak, climbing to 260 trillion dollars ($260,000 billion). At the same time, the global debt to GDP ratio crossed the 320 per cent threshold for the first time. Of that total, 61 per cent (160 trillion) is private debt of the non-financial sector, while only 23 per cent […]
In the past few years there has been a cavalcade of regulations imposed on European capital markets. While most of these changes are observable only to practitioners, some of them have had immediate visible effects for retail investors. One such rule is the necessity for a ‘key investor document’ (KID) for certain investment products.
A principle aim of global regulators […]
The boom of social media in the past decade has transformed the way investors forecast the stock market. As social media provides large volumes of real-time user opinion, investors can potentially exploit that information by leveraging machine learning and natural language processing techniques. In recent years, popular news channels have repeatedly reported that predicting the market using “alternative data”, […]
Until Donald Trump’s election campaign in 2016, it appeared as if the United States was dragging the increasingly resistant European Union into the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP). The settlement of investment disputes figured prominently among the reasons for the anti-TTIP mood in Europe. For instance, an article in the Independent in 2015 commented that “TTIP’s biggest threat […]
The collapse of Lehman Brothers on 15 September 2008 was the most significant single event of the ‘Great Financial Crisis’ (GFC). In his new book, Crashed, Adam Tooze writes that, “After September 15, 2008, avoiding another Lehman became an idee fixe of crisis managers around the world.” And since then one of the fastest-growing activities in the US and the […]
What happens to corporations that misbehave? Are they all punished? Are they all punished in the same way? Despite the cases that attract significant media attention and the potential legal consequences of misconduct, there is no guarantee that all corporations that misbehave will face the same punishment (or even any punishment).
One of the more visible types of punishment, and […]
Bank of England’s policymakers have unanimously voted to raise the policy rate from 0.5 per cent to 0.75 per cent. The hike, which was widely anticipated by the financial markets, made critics of Bank of England Governor Mark Carney rethink their accusations that the Governor behaves like an “unreliable boyfriend” in the sense that he keeps hinting an interest rate […]
Starting in the 1970s, various countries deregulated their banking systems and abandoned the strict rules that governed financial institutions since the Great Depression. Deregulation was intended to increase competition in the credit market, improve consumers’ welfare but it has been indicated by many observers to be at the roots of the 2008 financial crisis. Despite the large interest in […]
Sovereign Wealth Funds (SWFs) are investment funds set up by national governments as a means of saving – potentially across generations – a proportion of foreign exchange inflows, typically as a result of windfalls from natural resources, but also, in some circumstances, from manufactured goods export booms and/or even agricultural surpluses. They may also serve as a stabilisation device […]