In the social sciences, since the 1980’s we have been using the word “gender” instead of sex. The use of the term “gender” is not only politically correct – it is more precise, acute and scientifically accurate. The use of the term first and foremost conveys the idea that differences are not natural, nor biological or physically located in […]
Compared with the increasing participation of women in male-dominated occupations, the presence of men in female-dominated occupations remains low. While much scholarly attention has been devoted to explaining men’s reluctance to work in female-dominated fields, little is known about the occupational trajectories of men who beat a new path and enter female-dominated occupations. (See here and here for notable […]
Equal pay is often viewed as a fundamental marker of gender equality. As a target, it is also notoriously difficult to achieve. Despite a variety of policy measures, including equal pay legislation, adopted to promote equal pay, the gender pay gap persists around the globe. Recent equal pay disputes include the ones in private sector organisations, such as Tesco […]
According to a report released last month by the World Economic Forum, the global pay gap between men and women will take 202 years to close. Data from the Institute for Women’s Policy Research that examined women and men’s income over 15 years found that in the United States, women on average make less than half what men make: […]
Compared to other workers, mothers face significant disadvantages in the labour market when it comes to access to good jobs, wages and mobility. What explains these findings? Direct evidence of employers’ attitudes, though limited, suggests that employers tend to view mothers as less capable, competent and committed. Experimental and audit research finds that even when mothers’ competence and work […]
Backlash is a negative, hostile or aggressive reaction to a political idea. The term has been applied to civil and race rights. Recently however, it has been prominent in politics, business and the media, as an opposing stance to initiatives designed to advance women’s rights and social status.
History makes it clear that when gains for women are made, conservative […]
It is well documented that there are few women at the top of organisations. A frequently suggested reason for this scarcity is that women simply lack role models: you cannot be what you cannot see. However, although there may be few senior women who might function as role models in women’s immediate organisational environment, the number of celebrity businesswomen […]
Within contemporary society, entrepreneurship is feted as a pathway to self-efficacy, independence and innovation, whilst also creating employment and generating wealth. Further, it is presumed to be an open site of opportunity as there are no barriers to entry. Yet evidence suggests a strong gendered bias, which since the 1990s has been explored through a focus upon the under-representation […]
“So I started busting my butt at work. And I started working that much harder . . . so I felt I took on even more. I was working that much harder because I felt like I had to for everyone to feel comfortable with the fact that I’m pregnant, I’m having a baby . . . Because if […]
Only 5 per cent of major North American firms had a female CEO as of January 2018. (Catalyst)
Clearly women are underrepresented at the top level of corporations, but the reasons for this are less clear. In a recent article, we investigate two different paths to the scarcity of female CEOs:
Women are appointed as CEO less often; and/or
Women are […]
While women have made substantial inroads into the world of work and organisational hierarchies, many science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM) related fields such as engineering, still appear stubbornly resistant to gender diversity. Even from the perspective of many of the women who actually work in these industries.
Despite the best efforts of many firms, gender equality in terms of […]
When an organisation makes loud claims about equality at work, they’re not contributing to the agenda. They’re taking from it. They’re withdrawing reputation and brand equity and depositing little back in return.
To return that equity, they need to take meaningful action. You can often spot ‘meaning’ because it brings risk and scrutiny. It’s likely to lead to a structural […]
Attracting and keeping women in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) is a common problem. It needs to be tackled at the individual, organisational and systemic level. Our work on ‘Femininities in STEM’ focuses at the individual level. Two axes, one relating to career commitment and the other to non-work relational commitment are used to create a typology.
Based on […]
In a recent study, we investigate the role that culture and institutions play in creating gender differences in willingness to compete. We compare the competitiveness of women growing up in different periods in the recent history of mainland China and Taiwan. We find that women in Beijing who grew up during the communist regime, when gender equality was emphasised, […]
Two years ago, I told you that gender equality is a critical component of economic growth. I talked about the consequences of laws that facilitate or discourage women from entering the labor force. This was the 2016 edition of Women, Business and the Law, a World Bank Group product that identifies barriers to women’s economic participation and tracks progress […]
Female labour force participation has increased in most European countries in the last decades: the activity rate in EU15 has constantly increased in the last 20 years, gaining more than 10 percentage points (from 56 to 68 per cent). Nonetheless, the gender earnings gap remains substantially high in most countries.
Recent research highlighted that parenthood is one of the main […]
The pay gap between men and women is a longstanding problem in both American workplaces and women’s lives, and a new experiment reveals why a commonly proposed solution may not actually help. There have been a number of explanations given for the gender wage gap, but in recent years, one of the dominant explanations is that the wage gap […]
Gender inequality in firms is an issue which has concerned both economists and policymakers. In spite of significant improvements in women’s career prospects, the gender pay gap still persists. One crucial component as to why women on average earn lower wages than men is parenthood. I provide evidence of the positive impact of child care policies on women’s careers and […]